## Relative Clauses

Relative clauses are the phrases which start with a relative pronoun. While they probably essential to the meaning of a sentence, they are never crucial to the completeness of a sentence. For instance:

The tiger ate my aunt earlier today.

The tiger [that was hungry] ate my aunt earlier today.

Comma phrases are the additional phrases which are set off by a pair of commas. Take the following sentence:

[After escaping], the tiger that was hungry ate my aunt, [who was nice and juicy, earlier today.]

A crucial part of doing well on the SAT Writing section is knowing how to strip away all these secondary phrases to get back to the essence of the sentence.

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## Heat and Thermodynamics

Temperature scales: $\small T(K)=T(^{\circ}C)+273$

Temperature change: $\small Q=mc \Delta T$ (c is the specific heat.)

Phase change: $\small Q=mL$ (L is the latent heat of transformation.)

#### Thermal expansion $\small \Delta L = \alpha L_{0} \Delta T$ ( $\small \alpha$ is the coefficient of linear expansion.) $\small \Delta V = \beta V_{0} \Delta T$ ( $\small \beta$ is the coefficient of volume expansion.)

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## Study Notes: AP Statistics

Review Notes of AP Statistics. Based on The Princeton Review: Cracking the AP Statistics Exam 2019 Edition.

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## Study Notes: AP Physics C Reference Sheet

### Coulomb’s Law

Force between two point charges: $\small F=\frac{Q_{1}Q_{2}}{4\pi \varepsilon _{0}R^{2}}$

### Electric Fields

Definition of Electric Field: $\small E = \frac{F}{Q}=\frac{Q}{4\pi \varepsilon _{0}R^{2}}$
For a single point: $\small F=qE$

### Potential and Voltage

Definition of electric potential V: $\small V = \frac{U}{Q}$
For a constant electric field: $\small E_{x}=-\frac{\Delta V}{\Delta x}$
Potential due to a point charge at distance a: $\small V(a)= \frac{Q}{4 \pi \varepsilon _{0}a}$

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## Study Notes: AP Calculus BC

Review Notes of AP Calculus BC. Based on Barron’s AP Calculus 14th Edition.

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