Heat and Thermodynamics
Temperature change: (c is the specific heat.)
Phase change: (L is the latent heat of transformation.)
( is the coefficient of linear expansion.)
( is the coefficient of volume expansion.)
The kinetic theory of gases
The idea gas law: (R is the universal gas constant.)
Translational kinetic energy: ()
The laws of thermodynamics
- If object 1 and 2 are each in thermal equilibrium with object 3, then objects 1 and 2 are in thermal equilibrium with each other.
- Energy is neither created or destroyed in any thermodynamic system. ()
- The total amount of disorder (the total entropy) of a system plus its surroundings will never decrease.
efficiency of heat engines: ;
The Carnot Cycle
The most efficient heat engine follows what is known as the Carnot cycle.
For the Carnot cycle, efficiency ca nbe written as