## Heat and Thermodynamics

Temperature scales:

Temperature change: (c is the specific heat.)

Phase change: (L is the latent heat of transformation.)

#### Thermal expansion

( is the coefficient of linear expansion.)

( is the coefficient of volume expansion.)

#### The kinetic theory of gases

Pressure:

The idea gas law: (R is the universal gas constant.)

Translational kinetic energy: ()

Velocity:

#### The laws of thermodynamics

- If object 1 and 2 are each in thermal equilibrium with object 3, then objects 1 and 2 are in thermal equilibrium with each other.
- Energy is neither created or destroyed in any thermodynamic system. ()
- The total amount of disorder (the total entropy) of a system plus its surroundings will never decrease.

efficiency of heat engines: ;

#### The Carnot Cycle

The most efficient heat engine follows what is known as the Carnot cycle.

For the Carnot cycle, efficiency ca nbe written as